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Module 5: Increasing Returns and Red Queens

Dr. Thornburg (2014) and Arthur (1996) both approach to Increasing Returns and Red Queens is that two technologies are introduced at the same time and one gains ground while the other is driven out of existence. When I think about DVD’s and Video on Demand (VOD) I retrace my experience with each and which I gravitated to more. Even though VOD is more accessible, cost effective, and efficient, DVD’s are still prevalent today. However, this is a true sense of  “Increasing Returns” where DVD’s will soon become a thing of the past.

Since the 1980’s technology has continued to transform our way of life and (VHS’s) are a part of this historical timeline of emerging technology that changed our perception of 21st century living. From the mid 1980’s until now, DVD’s controlled the market but because of wi-fi and bluetooth capabilities and the ability to connect wirelessly, on demand product acquisition is feasible and common. So as we continue to see “Increasing Returns” technologies rapid growth will continue to turn our heads.

Reference

Arnold, T., K., (2008). Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/life/2002-10-17-dvd-timeline_x.html

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014e). David Thornburg: Increasing returns [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

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Module 4: The Disruptive Power of Google Glass and Its Precursor, the MIT SixthSense Project

Disruptive Technology can be considered a driving force to innovation growth or it can be considered a technology killer. Regardless of how it is perceived, disruptive technology allows for emerging technology to be challenged in becoming more efficient, more competitive, cheaper, and universal (Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R., 2015). Google Glasses and Sixth Sense are two emerging technologies that will hold the same emergence as the personal computer did in the late 1970’s (Knight, 2014).

As we move closer to Artificial Intelligence being the model structure for where technology is heading, Sixth Sense is a gestural interface technology that brings the digital world to the real world. This emerging technology may not only bring us closer to A.I. but it will change our world drastically (Ted Talks, 2009). Whether that is negative or positively is not the question but how will it change our world and what technology it will replace. Not only will it replace the smart phone but factories, digital cameras, .

Sixth Sense will have a life span for awhile because it is still being developed and it will be some time before something else will come along to make it obsolete (Diaz, 2009). Google glass on the other hand I feel has already peaked even though it did not make it to the consumer market (Metz, 2014). It’s platform is still very viable for a more advanced disruptive technology. It will be interesting to see where these two technologies will be in the next 5-10 years.

Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R., (2015). What is Disruptive Innovation. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2015/12/what-is-disruptive-innovation

Diaz, J., (2009). Sixth Sense Technology May Change How We Look at the World Forever. Retrieved from http://gizmodo.com/5167790/sixth-sense-technology-may-change-how-we-look-at-the-world-forever

Knight, D., (2014). Personal Computer History: The First 25 Years. http://lowendmac.com/2014/personal-computer-history-the-first-25-years/

Siam, Z., (2009). Feature: New Invention Gives People

Sixth Sense’. Retrieved from http://tech.mit.edu/V129/N6/sixthsense.html

TED India. (Producer). (2009). The thrilling potential of SixthSense technology [Video file]. Retrieved June 7, 2014, from http://www.ted.com/talks/pranav_mistry_the_thrilling_potential_of_sixthsense_technology.html

Metz, R., (2014). Google Glass is Dead; Long live Smart Glasses. Retrieved from https://www.technologyreview.com/s/532691/google-glass-is-dead-long-live-smart-glasses/

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Module 3: Evolutionary Technologies (Moore’s Law) and Rhymes of History

Dr. Thornburg (2013) explains the “Rhymes of History” of technology is experiencing the impact of a previous technology’s improvement. When personal computers were common in the market, schools made an effort to stay current with this latest innovation by establishing computer rooms with PCs that students could share. Since 1985 when computers graced the infrastructure of schools, computer labs became a hot topic that seemed a mainstay due to the fact that computers would always be needed in education  (Ómarsson, I. J., 2014). Having many uses, the computer changed school libraries, typing classes, yearbook closets, and even how school furniture was being created in order to fit this new permanent resident. Now the days of the computer lab are long gone. Personal computers have become an integral part of our everyday lives and mobile access is allowing smartphones and the deletion of desktop computers to be reconfigured.

As we continue to move faster into the world of rapidly emerging technology, some creative concepts and ideas are now of the past. 21st century schools have been a product that our society have been preparing for and working toward for the past 30 years (Smith, 2015). Within that format many good ideas are now obsolete due to the common place of technology. The defunct technology once titled “computer labs” are now innovative “creative labs” with mobile configuration to fit the need of the class during any project or specification. These rooms now have usb ports, outlets for adapters and cord to mobile devices such as iPhones, tablets, laptops, cintiq tablets, and so on (Stack, 2012). Adaptable environments are what schools are designing so kids can experience a more professional creative environment that is learner centered.

Reference

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014h). David Thornburg: Rhymes of history [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Omarsson, I. J., (2014). Retrieved from http://ingvihrannar.com/14-things-that-are-obsolete-in-21st-century-schools/

Stack, G., (2012). Retrieved from http://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2012/07/20/10-things-in-school-that-should-be-obsolete/

Retrieved from https://smithsystem.com/smithfiles/2015/09/15/computer-lab-design-modern-makeover/

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Module 2: Emerging Technologies Tetrad

GoogleDocs

Google Docs

When thinking about word processing, previous conversations would easily universally present Microsoft Works as the epitome of a word processing culture and platform. The cost of Microsoft Office was an issue because companies were spending too much money to upgrade and keep this much needed software in order to meet multiple needs due to licensing (Farren, 2016). Google Docs is an online word processor that lets you create and format text documents while collaborating with other people in real time. Google Docs continues to support the benefit of cloud computing by offering a word processing format free and easy coupled with online accessibility due to it’s online format. As cloud computing continues to show favoritism as an acceptable technology, google docs is also changing the approach to research by offering one-stop application usage and multi-collaboration option.

Enhances

  • Real Time collaboration
  • Free word processing applications
  • Universal syncing compatibility with other devices
  • Cloud computing

Obsolences

  • Microsoft office
  • Traditional word processing software

Retrieval

  • More advanced Concurrent Versioning System (CVS) and Subversion (SVN)
  • Regulated and more advanced Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
  • More advanced Integrated Content Environment (ICE) so cross platforms of content can be intertwined

Reversal

  • Standard software research documents
  • Standard word processing software
  • Dropbox and other paid applications for document transfer

References

Farren, C., (2016). Watch Your Assets. How to stop overpaying for Microsoft licensing. An
Independent View of Microsoft Software License Agreements.
       http://www.networkworld.com/article/2228713/microsoft-subnet/how-to-stop-
overpaying-for-microsoft-licensing.html

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014). David Thornburg: McLuhan’s Tetrad [Video file].
Baltimore, MD: Author.

Strickland, J,. (2016). How Google Docs Works. How Stuff Works Tech.
        http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/google-docs1.htm

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Module 1:Identifying an Emerged Technology

In Dr. Thornburg’s article Current Trends in Educational Technology (Thornburg, 2013), he pointed out a list of various emerging technologies that displayed the growth in which we have experienced regarding the overview of technology and it’s affect on education. From power consumption to the new empowered use of mobile devices in education, technology is continuing to place a stamp on 21st century education and how we perceive the classroom. One item I would like to add to the list is an emerging technology that continues to grow with leaps and bounds but causes a pause in it’s validity within education. This technology is 3D printing. 3D printings’ grand appearance was in the late 1980’s and has evolved and steadily made it’s validation more profound at a slow and steady pace. The cost for a 3D printer in the beginning ranged from $175,000.00 to $250,000.00. Now you can buy one as cheap as $1,500 or less (Wellington, 2013).

images-4

As technology continues to evolve, cost and efficiency are two areas that are achieved as emerging technology develops through evolution within many generations of it’s inception. Due to the new curriculums that are being implemented in our schools based on “S.T.E.M. (Science Technology, Engineering, Mathematics), focus to design more real-world solutions for students generates a challenge in curriculum and designs a more learner-centered format to engage not only the students, but also prescribe more professional development amongst teachers, administrators, and school boards who adopt new lessons that engage and support new technology within their curriculum (Stohlmann, M., Moore, T.J., Roehrig, G.H., 2013).

images-3

3D printers are now finding a place in these schools which allows students to see their concepts in actual form. With 3D printers, students now are receiving optimal learning that adds to a more successful experiential learning environment. Thanks to the production of affordable 3D printers, some schools can now afford to budget for purchase and help integrate their students to more real-world curriculums and change their classrooms to more blended optimal learning.

References:

Thornburg, D., (2013). Current trends in educational technology. Lake Barrington, IL: Thornburg Center for Space Exploration.

Stohlmann, M., Moore, T.J., Roehrig, G.H., (2012). Consideration for Teaching Integrated S.T.E.M. Education. Journal of Precollege Engineering Education Research (J-PEER). Vol. 2, 1.

Other Resources:

https://hbr.org/2015/05/the-3-d-printing-revolution

http://www.emergingedtech.com/category/3d-printing/

http://individual.troweprice.com/staticFiles/Retail/Shared/PDFs/3D_Printing_Infographic_FINAL.pdf

http://3dprinthq.com/how-3d-printing-has-evolved-in-the-last-10-years/

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Identifying an Emerged Technology

xmas-gadgets

As we continue to define emerging technologies, Drs. Thornburg, Soloway, and Rogers perceive an emerging technology not based on if you a technology is new to the market or just new to your community, but can it broaden the efficacy of a community by it’s use?

Before I decided on which direction I wanted to agree with, I researched the definition of the word “emerging” to help in my decision. Defined by Webster’s Dictionary (2016), the word emerging means, “newly created or noticed and growing in strength or popularity : becoming widely known or established.” By this definition, I have to agree with Dr. Rogers when he says a technology is emerging when it is new to your community of practice. Now this does not mean the technology is world-wide or renowned. As Dr. Thornburg (2014) stated, technologies are viewed differently based on the global or local use. This was shown in the example of Linux and its open-source operating systems. In that same regard, the technology I believe is emerging is not a particular device but more of a platform. That platform is blended classrooms. Blended classrooms first attention was chartered in the 1960’s with one example called PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations). Since then it evolved as technology evolved throughout our culture and now in education.

The basic definition for a blended classroom is a hybrid learning using mixed-methods of instruction so the learning can become more engaging. As schools continue to find ways to change their format from teacher oriented to learner centered, blended classrooms will also help in classroom management, educating different types of learners (learning below average, average, and above average students, personalized learning, and redefinition of the teacher (Joseph Rapposelli, 2014).

I truly believe as cost, engagement, standards, and advanced learning continue to create a challenge to our school systems, blended learning will help in alleviating a few of these concerns and gain traction in becoming the new standard to an educational classroom. John Dewey (1938) a huge proponent for experiential learning described what a blended classroom can produce in creating a successful classroom. The traction a blended classroom is and will produce will be evident in the change of desire for learning and how standard brick and mortar schools will be viewed (Tom Vander Ark, 2016). This emerging technology still has not come close to the potential is has as a platform to support other means of learning and teaching.

References

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014k). David Thornburg: What is emerging technology? [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014c). Elliot Soloway: Resilience and risk taking in educational technology [Audio file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014a). Elliot Soloway: Emerging vs. emerged technologies [Audio file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Retrieved from http://gettingsmart.com/2012/06/blended-learning-can-improve-working-conditions-teaching-learning/

Retrieved from https://thejournal.com/articles/2014/10/22/blended-learning-provides-pathway-to-success-for-high-school-students.aspx

Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/emerging

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May 28, 2016 · 12:13 am

Module 6: Assignment #1 (Blended Classrooms)

https://youtu.be/fgkljsjnIOI

References:

Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/our-team/michael-b-horn/

Annotated Bibliography

Mystica M. A., Lynch, J.E., Rabinovich, T., and Knutel, P. G.,  (2014). Snapshot of a Hybrid Learning Environment. Bentley University, (pp.9-31).

The authors wanted to highlight how one university needed to figure out a way to increase their enrollment by implementing online learning into their program. Understanding how effective online learning has been to others higher education institutions, Bentley University wanted to be a part of this new trend that was surpassing it’s expectations of being just a trend. With the use of certain approaches and tools to this hybrid learning, Bentley University found their assumptions came into fruition.

Westerman, E., (2014). A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning. Texas A&M University-San Antonio, Vol. 38.2, (pp. 43-57).

The authors elaborate on the concept of a “Flipped Classroom” were other tools of innovation are being used to fortify a better and more conducive learning environment. At Texas A & A University, one upper level history class used a blended on-line format with standard in class structure. They pushed the process and concept of “flipping a classroom” by incorporating video technology combined of a students practicum and an instructors lectures presented from an online forum in a classroom. Students within this class shared their thoughts in a collaborative structure outside of class which allowed a cognitive process to serve as a gateway to a more detailed finished product.

Strayer, J., (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environment Residence, 15: (pp.171–193).

The authors wanted to share the findings of a mixed-method research study by comparing a non-blended and blended classroom within the researchers own classroom. This research used a qualitative research approach but incorporated quantitative survey methods to test an inverted classroom with an innovative tutoring system which introduced students to their classroom content outside of the classroom structure. The second classroom was a traditional lecture-homework style classroom were students in both classes assessed their concepts of learning using a College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI). The data collected within this study showed the connected stability of each learning community and how they effect course design in their respective learning surroundings.

Francis, R., (2012). Enhancing Teaching and Learning through the Integration of Blended Learning Instructional Strategies(BLIS) in the Classroom. Journal of Applied Learning Technology. Vol. 2. No. 2.

Understanding regardless of how great the information gathered, the teacher must be connected to the students and their peers in order to be an effective teacher. This article focuses on the author’s understanding of the common issues related to effective teaching and student engagement using the Marzano 9 effective instructional strategies as a scaffold for organization and implementation within a classroom regardless of the size of the classroom or the content used within that classroom.

Kazu, Y. I., & Demirkols, M., (2014). Effect of Blended Learning Environment Model on High School Students’ Academic Achievement. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology; aDepartment of Education Science, Faculty of Education Fırat University, Turkey and  Institute of Education Sciences, Dicle University. Vol. 13, 1.

The authors wanted to use Diyarbakir Anatolian High School’s first year biology course to compare the academic performances of a blended learning and traditional learning environment. Their initiative to do this research stemmed from an observation between the difference of academic achievement grade dispersions of the male and female students. The number of participants in this study are 54, 19 males and 8 females for the experiment group which used the blended learning environment and 18 males and 9 females for the controlled group using the traditonal learning environment. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks highlighting the genetics topic of biology. A pretest was supplied to both groups and a significant difference has not been found yet, in compliance to the averages of the final test grades, more success was found in the experiment group than control group. In both of the learning environments, female students have turned out to be more successful than the male students.

Kuna, Y. C., Bellandh, B.R., Schroder, K. E., and Walkerb, A. E., (2014). K-12 teachers’ perceptions of and their satisfaction with interaction type in blended learning environments. Distance Education. Lifelong Learning, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; bInstructional Technology and Learning Sciences, Logan, UT, USA; cHealth Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Vol. 35, No. 3, (pp. 360381).

The authors wanted to investigate how effective blended learning would be combined with face-to-face (F2F) learning and computer-mediated learning . The relationship between the perceptions of students from three types of interaction that included K-12 teachers (graduate students) enrolled at a graduate level course and their perception of blended learning was the data collected from this research. The course was 15 weeks long and 10 of those 15 weeks were sessions led by a teacher via video conferencing (synchronous instructor-led (F2F). Five weeks sessions facilitated through interactive video conferencing (face-to-face), and 5 weeks were not synchronized sessions which was lead by Blackboard management team. The one vital factor that was seen within this research was the students personality was key for the interaction of this course design.

Critique and video analysis with classmates Patricia Marcino and Elizabeth Hurley. The links to their post is below for my commentary.

https://elizabethhurleyblog.wordpress.com/2015/08/01/keynote-speaker-introduction-video/comment-page-1/#comment-35

https://marcipe.wordpress.com/2015/08/06/md6-movie-project/

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